Research suggests more silicon in Earths lower mantle than thought

first_img More information: Nature 485, 90–94 (03 May 2012) doi:10.1038/nature11004 Citation: Research suggests more silicon in Earth’s lower mantle than thought (2012, May 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-05-silicon-earth-mantle-thought.html Source: Wikipedia The problem is that tests done to determine the composition of the mantel have found that there appears to be less silicon in it proportionally, than there is in asteroids. Now new research by a Japanese team suggests that the lowest section of the Earth’s mantle has more silicon in it than does the upper parts, perhaps solving the mystery. They have described their work in their paper published in the journal Nature.To help clarify what lies far beneath our feet, geophysicists have subdivided the Earth’s mantle into three broad sections: the upper, middle and lower mantle. The upper mantle describes the crust and approximately 400 km below. The middle is about 250 km thick and the lower goes to about 2,900 km in depth.The upper mantle is far easier to study of course, due to its proximity and thus the proportion of silicon in it is well understood. Not so well understood has been the composition of the middle and lower mantles. To study them, researches generally use seismic data recorded by sending shockwaves into the ground, but doing so thus far, has led more often to speculation than good science.To get a better handle on what is happening so far beneath the Earth’s surface the Japanese team took a different approach; instead of trying to measure the lower mantle itself, they sought to recreate it in a lab where it could be measured much more easily. To do that, they mixed the ingredients (mainly silicate perovskite and ferropericlase) they believe exist in the lower mantel and placed them in a pressure chamber. There the sample was subjected to different pressure levels consistent with current theories describing the differing degrees of pressure at different levels of the mantle. They then applied the same seismic tests normally done on the real mantle. In so doing, they have come to believe that the lower mantle has a volume that is approximately 93% silicate perovskite, which when compared with data describing the upper crust gives an average amount of silicon for the entire mantle that is very nearly equal to that found in asteroids. Thus, the mystery, they say is solved. Diamonds show depth extent of Earth’s carbon cycle Explore furthercenter_img © 2012 Phys.Org Journal information: Nature For many years geophysicists have argued over the perplexing mystery regarding the amount of silicon in the Earth’s mantle that is thought to have arrived there via impacts with asteroids. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Dispatch software combines multiple internet connections into one

first_img Explore further Of course, not everyone is willing to grab whatever Wi-Fi is available, but that doesn’t mean they are out of luck. Most users with Wi-Fi at home get their access via cable, thus they could plug in a dedicated cable and still use the built in Wi-Fi to bump up their throughput.One important thing to note about Dispatch, it doesn’t speed up your connection, it just allows more data to pass through to your computer; sort of like turning on two water taps at home to fill a basin, rather than just one. The water runs out at the same speed, but the sink fills twice as fast. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2012 Phys.Org Google’s free Wi-Fi extends to the sky, on planescenter_img Alex Gizis, CEO of a company called Connectify has posted a project on Kickstarter whose aim is to create a software product that allows people to pull together multiple Ethernet connections into one, multiplying the amount of data that can be transmitted at once. He calls it Dispatch and to prove that it’s for real, he’s posted a video demonstrating its capabilities on the Kickstarter page. And fortunately for all of us, it appears he and his company are near their goal of collecting the $50,000 they think they’ll need to finish the software and bring it to market.It doesn’t have to be just multiple Wi-Fi signals either; the software can combine a standard wall connection, Wi-Fi, a tethered cell phone or even a mobile data card. It also doesn’t appear to have a limit on the number of connections that can be combined, so users would be constrained only by the number of hardware devices they are able to connect to their computer. In the video demo, the team added enough hardware to their laptop to combine all of the available Wi-Fi in their neighborhood (by going up on the roof of their building) and managed to get a 85Mbs connection. Citation: Dispatch software combines multiple internet connections into one (2012, August 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-dispatch-software-combines-multiple-internet.html (Phys.org)—Imagine for a moment you’re sitting at your computer at home, staring at the little bar noting the progress of a movie you’ve decided to download, from a legitimate site of course. You remember seeing all those other Wi-Fi connections your neighbors have going, most of them likely without password protection. If only there were a way to funnel them all together into one stream, giving you unprecedented download bandwidth. Notwithstanding the illegality of sucking bandwidth from your neighbors, it appears a solution is on the horizon.last_img read more

Study proposes smart sutures with sensors for wounds

first_imgCopyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim (Phys.org)—What if sutures could be coated with sensors to monitor wounds and speed healing? A recent study published in the journal Small indicates materials and methods that show it may be part of the medical science future. Researchers working with advanced materials applied to medicine have built “smartened” sutures with ultrathin silicon sensors to measure temperature at a wound site—elevated temperatures indicate infection—and to deliver heat to a wound site to aid healing. The study, published online, is titled “Thin, Flexible Sensors and Actuators as ‘Instrumented’ Surgical Sutures for Targeted Wound Monitoring and Therapy.” The study authors present two types of temperature sensors on the sutures, a silicon diode that shifts current output with temperature, and platinum nanomembrane resistor, changing its resistance with temperature. Gold filaments that heat up when current passes through them serve as the micro-heaters. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Flexible LEDs for implanting under the skin Technology Review explains how the researchers take chemicals to slice off an ultrathin film of silicon from a silicon wafer. With a rubber stamp, they lift and transfer the nanomembranes to polymer or silk strips. They deposit metal electrodes and wires on top and encapsulate the device in an epoxy coating.The design shape is serpentine to allow for elasticity. As silicon is brittle. the nanomembranes are thin and are laid out in a winding pattern. John A. Rogers, study co-author and professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, worked with the study team on the smart sutures. *. Rogers, for some years, has been intrigued by the potential of “the stretchable” as a next wave in electronics. His research interests include capabilities that can be achieved through stretchable technologies. The study authors state that “Proper healing of incised skin is critical to the natural processes of tissue repair. Concepts in flexible silicon electronics enable integration of actuators, sensors and a variety of semiconductor devices onto thin strips of plastic or biopolymers, to yield ‘instrumented’ suture threads for monitoring and accelerating the wound healing in this context. Bifacial systems of this type demonstrate various classes of functionality, in live animal models. Detailed modeling of the mechanics reveals stress and strain distributions in such applications, to support design strategies for robust operation.”MC10, a Cambridge, Massachusetts startup, of which Rogers is cofounder, is working on providing “bend, wrap and stretch” electronics into new form factors. The company has been making use of lab prototypes from Rogers.The technology presented in Small has been demonstrated on animals. In the animal tests, researchers were able to lace the sutures through skin, pull them tight, and knot them without degrading the devices. The researchers tested both flexibility and toughness on incisions in rat skin. Rogers, in speaking about future developments, imagines the most value from sutures such as this would be if one could release drugs from them in a programmed way. He said that might be done by coating the electronic threads with drug-infused polymers, which would release chemicals when triggered by heat or an electrical pulse. Explore furthercenter_img © 2012 Phys.Org Journal information: Small More information: DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200933 Citation: Study proposes smart sutures with sensors for wounds (2012, August 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-smart-sutures-sensors-wounds.htmllast_img read more

Nucleoids and the structure of life

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The compaction is belived to result from a partial unwinding of duplex DNA. This “softening”, if you will, effects the higher order structure of the DNA—what DNA topologists call the twist and writhe. Twist is the number of helical turns in the DNA while the writhe is the number of times the double helix crosses over on itself. In mtDNA (and many other types of DNA as well) the writhe component is negatively supercoiled, or slightly unwound in the normal state.In the statements above regarding the three parent embryos and the estimates of total mtDNA per cell, the assumption was made that each nucleoid contains just a single copy of the 16 kbp molecule. While there is some evidence for that, the full dynamic nature of nucleoids (and mitochondria in general) has yet to be explored. A few years ago, Nick Lane raised concerns about potential mtDNA incompatibilities for three parent embryos. He and others have noted that our genes show all the cardinal signs of compatibility, even optimality, with our mitochondria at the individual level.This new work on the the nature of mtDNA is critical to our understanding what really controls the cell—and therefore in the case of germ cells—what controls us. Nowhere of course, does it say we must only produce optimal children, or for that matter, healthy ones. More important for us, is to be able to decribe what those terms might even mean. Comparing brains or cells to computers is a tired analogy. None the less we might tap it for incite into why our mitochondria retain the genes that they have. It is notable that as computer architectures continue to evolve to entirely new problems, hardware concepts are often completely rethought. To defeat a human at Jeopardy, IBM’s Watson for example, replicates the mere 4TB of data in its filesystem several times across 16TB of RAM. The expansive replication of select mtDNA throughout the cell likely has similar advantages for life. A detailed picture of the structure of the eukaryotic nucleus and the chromosomes within it still eludes modern day cell biology. It is no wonder that a Youtube search can not fulfill that request—we don’t even have the video yet for the mitochondrion’s plasmid nucleoid. As in many things biological, the best way to try to understand these nucleoids is to build them. In other words reconstitute them in vitro from minimal components. A new paper in Cell Reports describes the construction of mitochondrial nucleoprotein complexes from scratch. By fine-tuning the concentration of a ubiquituous compaction protein known as mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), the researchers demonstrate the precise regulation of mtDNA replication and transcription. So what might we expect from the definitive mitochondrial animation? Corresponding author Maria Falkenberg would probably be one of the best consultants to have on the project. Her group previously created a minimal mtDNA “replisome” in vitro and established that Twinkle is the helicase used at the mtDNA replication fork. Acting alone, the definitive mtDNA polymerase (POLγ) cannot use double-stranded DNA template for DNA synthesis. However in combination with Twinkle, single strands of DNA up to 2kb can be synthesized. When ssDNA-binding protein (mtSSB) is added to mix, DNA products up to about 16 kb can be made—ie. the same size as mammalian mtDNA.Using the replisome trinity just described, the researchers can titrate in fluorescently-labelled TFAM and get a hands on feel for the effects using a combination of optical trapping and atomic force microscopy. They found that high TFAM:mtDNA ratios resulted in the formation of large stable TFAM filaments which compact the DNA and reduce the progression of replication and transcription complexes. Small changes in the TFAM concentration generally resulted in a rather large impact on the average compaction. As in the DNA binding of histones in the nucleus, there remains some ambiguity in the works and the picture is still incomplete. For example, TFAM binds in a cooperative manner (in the sense of cooperative hemoglobin binding to oxygen) to nonspecific DNA sequences forming protein patches with each monomer covering approximately 30bp of DNA. On the other hand, acting as a transcription factor, there appears to be some more specific DNA promoter binding as well, with the establishment of a specific U-turn motiff. Previous in vivo estimates have put the concentration of TFAM somewhere in the range one molecule per 15 to 18 bp of mtDNA. Citation: Nucleoids and the structure of life (2014, July 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-07-nucleoids-life.html More information: In Vitro-Reconstituted Nucleoids Can Block Mitochondrial DNA Replication and Transcription, Cell Reports, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.05.046 Scientists advise caution with regard to artificial insemination method Mitochondrial Nucleoid Core. Credit: mol-biol4masters.masters.grkraj.org Explore further (Phys.org) —In the brave new world of three-parent embryos several inherited mitochondrial diseases can potentially be solved. One slightly dubious argument used by its champions to assuage equally dubious traditional ethical objections is that a mitochondrial donor only supplies 16.6K base pairs (BPs) of mtDNA to the child—a trifling amount compared the 3.4B BPs of (nuclear) nucDNA. What this unassailable yet simplistic truth conceals is that with perhaps 10 plasmid copies per mitochondria, and 100K mitochondria per egg, we are actually talking about 16.5B BPs of mtDNA stashed in strategic fortifications throughtout the cell. Although there is considerable redundancy even in cells with a fairly heteroplasmic stock of mitochondria, that’s a bit more DNA than the nucleus has. © 2014 Phys.org Journal information: Cell Reportslast_img read more

SAGE investigation wises up to signs of rigged review

first_img Citation: SAGE investigation wises up to signs of rigged review (2014, July 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-07-sage-wises-rigged.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. What lesson do rising retraction rates hold for peer review? (Phys.org) —For movie stars, bad publicity—a fender-bender, rowdy behavior at a club, neighbor’s complaints—is better than the real career-killer, which is no publicity at all. In scientific research, the opposite is true. No publicity over the veracity of research efforts in peer-reviewed journals is better than bad press. This week, however, news that a scholarly journal retracted 60 articles after discovering what it said was apparent rigged peer review drew a favorable light on SAGE, the journal’s publishers. They cared enough to set the record straight themselves, independent of outside publicity. The articles were pulled after evidence pointed toward the articles having at least one author, or being reviewed by at least one reviewer, implicated in the peer review/citation ring. The publication at the center of this story is Journal of Vibration Control, a peer-review journal with a focus on acoustics. The formal description is as a peer-reviewed journal of analytical, computational and experimental studies of vibration phenomena and their control. The word “ring” is not a sensationalist term invented by the outside press to describe the scholarly journal’s discovery. The SAGE Publication team themselves called the group a ring; they said last year the then editor-in-chief and SAGE became aware of signs that there was apparently a peer review ring involving assumed and fabricated identities, to manipulate the online submission system. SAGE and the editor carried out the investigation with the full cooperation of the National Pingtung University of Education (NPUE) in Taiwan. According to the SAGE statement on its findings, appearing to center around one person at the NPUE, the author had created various aliases on SAGE Track and, on at least one occasion, the author had reviewed his own paper under one of the aliases he had created: “While investigating the JVC papers submitted and reviewed by Peter Chen, it was discovered that the author had created various aliases on SAGE Track, providing different email addresses to set up more than one account. Consequently, SAGE scrutinised further the co-authors of and reviewers selected for Peter Chen’s papers, these names appeared to form part of a peer review ring. The investigation also revealed that on at least one occasion, the author Peter Chen reviewed his own paper under one of the aliases he had created.”.In a report from The New York Times, Chen Chien-huang, the university’s chief secretary, said by email on Friday morning that the university is still looking into the case. “We are continuing to investigate according to the materials just publicized by JVC,” he wrote.The journal and SAGE understand from NPUE that the man considered to be at the center resigned his post at NPUE.The mass withdrawal of papers by the journal was first reported by Retraction Watch, a blog that reports on retractions of scientific papers. The Guardian said that the 60 papers involved were published in print and online over the past four years. SAGE said that, looking ahead, they have put steps in place to make the journal less vulnerable. Three senior editors and an additional 27 associate editors “with expertise and prestige in the field” were appointed to assist with the day-to-day running of the JVC peer review process. Explore further © 2014 Phys.org Credit: SAGE More information: retractionwatch.com/2014/07/08 … -60-papers-retractedlast_img read more

Radio halo discovered in a massive merging galaxy cluster

first_imgColourscale image of diffuse emission in MACS J2243.3-0935 with black contours overlaid showing the tapered image. Contours are at -3, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 × σrms where σrms = 200 µJy/beam. Galaxy density contours overlaid in white. These contours are range from 20 to 90 percent of the peak value in steps of 10. Credit: Therese Cantwell et al., 2016. Citation: Radio halo discovered in a massive merging galaxy cluster (2016, February 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-02-radio-halo-massive-merging-galaxy.html © 2016 Phys.org Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The researchers, led by Therese Cantwell of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Manchester, U.K., have used two radio telescopes to make the detection. Located in South Africa, the KAT-7 telescope was employed to observe MACSJ2243.3-0935 on Sept. 7, 2012. Nearly two years later, on June 20, 2014, the team used the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in India to conduct follow-up observations of this galaxy cluster. KAT-7 is an array of seven antennas with diameters of 12 meters, while GMRT consists of 30 antennas with diameters of 45 meters.It was quite challenging to detect the radio halo as these diffuse emissions generally have very low surface brightness, particularly at GHz frequencies, making them hard to detect. Therefore, as the scientists scan lower frequencies, their brightness increases, unveiling the presence of these radio-emitting regions.”The GMRT is a very useful telescope for detecting radio halos as it is capable of observing at these lower frequencies. The GMRT is also capable of producing images at both high and low resolutions. This is very important, as there can be compact radio emission from other astronomical objects coincident with the radio halo that can make determining the halo properties difficult. Having high resolution images allows us to remove the contributions of the point sources, while the low resolution images are most sensitive to the halo emission,” Cantwell told Phys.org.The astronomers found out that the radio halo in MACSJ2243.3-0935 has flux and dimensions typical of other radio halos. However, they noted that very little is known about these peculiar regions of diffuse emission, including the most important question about their formation.The formation of radio halos is believed to be linked to the merger of galaxy clusters, which are hugely energetic events—roughly equivalent to a trillion super novae explosions. One formation scenario suggests that turbulence in the gas of the galaxy cluster accelerates particles to radio-emitting energies leading to the production of radio halos. However, not all merging galaxy clusters host radio halos.”The reason for this is not yet clear, although it is potentially related to how much energy is released in a particular merger event, where a weaker merger does not generate enough turbulence to form a radio halo,” Cantwell said.According to the team, more observations are needed at both lower and higher frequencies in order to investigate different formation scenarios.In addition to finding the radio cluster, Cantwell and her colleagues also detected a potential radio relic candidate to the west of the cluster. Radio relics, similar to halos, are normally elongated structures found at the periphery of clusters and can be highly polarized. If the existence of this feature is confirmed, it will make MACS J2243.3-0935 one of only a handful of clusters that host both a halo and a relic. More information: A Newly-Discovered Radio Halo in Merging Cluster MACS J2243.3-0935. arxiv.org/abs/1602.05923AbstractWe report the discovery of a radio halo in the massive merging cluster MACSJ2243.3-0935, as well as a new radio relic candidate, using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope and the KAT-7 telescope. The radio halo is coincident with the cluster X-ray emission and has a largest linear scale of approximately 0.9 Mpc. We measure a flux density of 10.0±2.0 mJy at 610 MHz for the radio halo. We discuss equipartition estimates of the cluster magnetic field and constrain the value to be of the order of 1 μG. The relic candidate is detected at the cluster virial radius where a filament meets the cluster. The relic candidate has a flux density of 5.2±0.8 mJy at 610 MHz. We discuss possible origins of the relic candidate emission and conclude that the candidate is consistent with an infall relic. GMRT discovers a dying, giant radio galaxy 9 billion light years away (Phys.org)—Radio halos are enormous regions of diffuse radio emission, usually found at the centers of galaxy clusters. Recently, an international team of astronomers has discovered such a large area of diffuse emission, estimated to be about three million light years wide. The newly detected halo is located in a distant massive merging galaxy cluster designated MACSJ2243.3-0935. The findings are presented in a research paper published online on Feb. 18 in the arXiv journal.last_img read more

Political corruption scandals may be predicted by network science

first_imgAccording to the World Bank, corruption scandals siphon more than $2 trillion per year from the global economy, making corruption one of the major causes of slow economic growth and socioeconomic inequality. Now in a new study, researchers have demonstrated that it may be possible to predict who will play a role in future scandals by modeling current scandals using networks. The results may provide a tool for detecting corruptive practices and reducing the high cost of corruption to society. © 2018 Phys.org African business schools must change tack to combat corruption More information: Haroldo V. Ribeiro et al. “The dynamical structure of political corruption networks.” Journal of Complex Networks. To be published. Also at arXiv:1801.01869 [physics.soc-ph] Complex network of individuals involved in corruption scandals in Brazil from 1987 to 2014. Each vertex represents an individual, and the edges between vertices indicate that both individuals participated in the same corruption scandal. Credit: Ribeiro et al. ©2018 Journal of Complex Networks The researchers, led by Matjaž Perc at the University of Maribor in Slovenia and the Complexity Science Hub Vienna in Austria, along with Haroldo V. Ribeiro from the University of Maringá and coauthors from two other universities in Brazil, have published a paper on their analysis of political corruption using network science in a recent issue of the Journal of Complex Networks.In their work, the researchers constructed a dynamic network of 27 years’ worth of political corruption scandals in Brazil, and used time series analysis to study how the network evolves over the years. The model involves more than 400 nodes that represent individuals, along with links connecting individuals who were involved in the same scandal, for a total of 65 well-documented scandals. Overall, the results showed that such networks reveal a great deal of information about the intricacies of the scandals.”Despite all odds, going against the veil of secrecy that surrounds corruption, and going against the people who are doing their best to remain anonymous and undetected, we show that applying methods of network science uncovers the gist of politically corrupt behavior,” Perc told Phys.org.Among the findings are that political scandals typically rise and fall in time with election cycles, that scandals often involve small groups of 8 or so people (presumably because smaller groups are easier to conceal), and that it’s possible to identify individuals who have played central roles in multiple scandals. To test the network’s predictive power, the researchers applied several different algorithms to predict missing links based on the similarity between nodes. They found that the best algorithms have statistically significant predictive power, with more than 25% of the top 10 predicted links appearing in future stages of the corruption network.”We show empirically that corruption boils down to self-interested behavior in small groups that exist in hierarchical small-world networks,” Perc said. “We observe that the number of politicians involved in corruption increases with an oscillatory undulation that is linked to the four-year election cycle in Brazil. We also find that only a few well-linked individuals dominate a modular network structure, which often changes suddenly as the government changes. And ultimately, we show that future ‘partners in crime’ can be accurately predicted based on the dynamical structure of corruption networks. In short, we show that politically corrupt behavior gives away nearly all of its secrets when analyzed in the realm of corruption networks.”In the future, the scientists plan to apply these techniques to a problem which they are all too familiar with: the ethics of research funding, particularly in Slovenia.”The biggest challenge lies in obtaining comprehensive and reliable data,” Perc said. “We may therefore look next at relatively overseeable public sector operations in Slovenia, from state-funded research to the national award system, which appear to be off their hinges in recent years. These operations are failing to support capable young people in exchange for keeping utterly useless but politically loyal individuals and institutions happy. Hopefully, our research will help with the transition towards a sustainable and more meritocratic spending of public research funds.” Explore further Citation: Political corruption scandals may be predicted by network science (2018, January 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-01-political-corruption-scandals-network-science.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

New Research From Clinical Psychological Science

first_imgRead about the latest research published in Clinical Psychological Science: According to the contrast avoidance model (CAM), people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may prefer to keep a state of constant negative emotion rather than risk feeling positive and then suffering disappointment or hurt. To test this model, the researchers used an ecological momentary assessment procedure in which participants with (GAD) and healthy control subjects received an Android phone and were prompted to rate their worry (e.g., did you experience a train of thought you couldn’t get out of your head during the past hour?) and its duration, thought valence (e.g., how would you rate your thoughts in the past hour? Unpleasant to pleasant), and anxious arousal (e.g., did you feel keyed up or on edge during the past hour?). The items used to measure worry, thought valence, and anxious arousal were validated in a previous experiment. The participants responded 10 times a day for 8 days. Results indicated that (a) higher worry duration, negative thought valence, and an uncontrollable train of thought predicted feeling more keyed up at the same time and feeling more anxious 1 hr later, and (b) higher levels of worry and anxious arousal predicted lower likelihood of a negative emotional contrast 1 hr later. These results support the CAM in an ecologically valid setting. Overall, worry reduces sharp increases in negative emotions and does so by increasing anxious arousal. Thus, therapeutic techniques that target the underlying mechanisms of worry may improve the outcomes of GAD treatments. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Girls: The Case for Targeted Prevention in PreadolescenceTheodore P. Beauchaine, Stephen P. Hinshaw, and Jeffrey A. Bridge   The Potential Role of Learning Capacity in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression: A Systematic Review of the Evidence and Future Directions for Improving Therapeutic LearningSanne J. E. Bruijniks, Robert J. DeRubeis, Steven D. Hollon, and Marcus J. H. Huibers How does learning capacity influence the outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression? Bruijniks et al. review the learning processes that are disrupted in patients with depression and that might affect learning during treatment. Depressed patients tend to show preferential processing of negative information, intrusive memories, deficits in reflective or rational processing, and loss of hippocampal volume, an area involved in human memory and learning. These impairments in learning processes may result in the persistence of dysfunctional thoughts in depression. The authors define learning in CBT as the process that will lead to stable changes in behavior during treatment. Thus, learning capacity seems to affect the relationship between CBT procedures and changes. This relationship explains why therapeutic procedures lead to long-term success in some patients with depression but not others. Specifically, some studies indicate that patients with deficits in learning processes tend to show less change in the underlying processes in CBT and achieve a worse outcome than patients whose learning is unimpaired. Hence, the authors suggest that finding ways to increase learning capacity (e.g., optimizing session frequency, use learning processes to change dysfunctional thinking) for individuals with depression will likely optimize CBT procedures and improve treatment outcomes. The Effects of Worry in Daily Life: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study Supporting the Tenets of the Contrast Avoidance ModelMichelle G. Newman, Nicholas C. Jacobson, Nur Hani Zainal, Ki Eun Shin, Lauren E. Szkodny, and Martin J. Sliwinski   About 15% to 20% of adolescents deliberately injure themselves without suicidal intent (i.e., nonsuicidal self-injury, or NSSI). Girls make up the majority of those adolescents, and many of them initiate NSSI before age 10. Girls exhibit NSSI and are hospitalized more frequently than boys. In accordance, Beauchaine et al. suggest the need to develop preventive interventions that target the mechanisms of NSSI during preadolescence, especially for girls. A first step to develop targeted prevention is to identify vulnerable individuals before they engage in NSSI, and research suggests that preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are also maltreated are at greatest risk for NSSI and future suicide attempts. The authors suggest that impulsivity, a highly heritable trait, interacts with emotion dysregulation, which is maintained by maltreatment and associated family and social dynamics to contribute to the development of NSSI. Existing interventions can change the family, peers, and other social mechanisms that contribute to maltreatment and reinforce self-harm. These interventions seem to change the neurobiological markers of vulnerability that the preadolescents at risk of NSSI tend to show (e.g., dysregulation of such autonomic functions as heart rate and respiration syncing, dysregulated brain responses to stress, and changes in the brain areas related to planning or impulse control). Thus, these biomarkers can be used to evaluate prevention response without waiting for NSSI and suicide attempts to emerge.last_img read more

Music has some new arrivals

first_imgAagman steps into the corridors of music which promises music which can touch and reach hearts of listeners. The band which was officially formed in May 2011 has already created a sensation over the Internet. They have their roots in Delhi. Aagman plays rock, pop, Hindi and derives music from various elements and phases of life…taking inspirations from everything around us. The band is always ready to explore which is not confined to any particular genre. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Why the name Aagman ?The name Aagman signifies the arrival. So we are here in the music industry to make good, radiant music. Our listeners have welcomed our music with open arms, so it is indeed a new phase of our life with fresh music.Tell us something about your struggling days….Promoting the band, our songs were the most challenging days since we started off on 2011, as we did not have much money then. However, Internet was the biggest platform we used to publicise our music, which ranges from pop to rock music in Hindi. Facebook has been lucky for us to showcase and promote our music. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixWhat is the USP of your band? How about the line up…Our music is mostly youth oriented. The lyrics are fresh, and the kind of music we play has appealed the crowd….because it is not only rock, but we produce romantic music too. So the kind of music we make touches the audiences heart. We are a five member band. Vishvesh (vocalist, composer, lyricist and rhythm guitarist), Akhilesh (composer, lyricist, bass player and backing vocals), Nitin (drummer), Sparsh (keyboard) and Sonia Rawat (vocals ). How many stage shows have you done till date, and what’s in store for the future?We have done almost 21 stage shows including cities like, New Delhi, Mumbai, Jaipur, Ranchi, Hyderabad, Goa. Presently we are working on our next album, which has mostly a collection of romantic songs lined up. We are also in talks with the makers of Pyaar Ka Punchnama – 2, so we can get a good launching in Bollywood as well.Q. What is your message to the budding rock bands in the city…There is so much of creativity around, we would like to suggest to the budding rock bands, to keep their originality intact. And when music and lyrics comes from the heart, it creates the best music ever…last_img read more

The Italian Job

first_imgThe Capital will be introduced to Italian way of learning soon. As we all often question that, is the bookish knowledge enough for our development? A lot of us might have grown up in an environment where teaching was more about the written word. However, the children today have a lot more in store when it comes to education.Salwan Public School along with Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts will hold a month long travelling exhibition to instigate a new beginning in preschool and primary education system, for the much-needed change, it requires. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The exhibition titled The Wonder of Learning – the hundred languages of Children is based on Reggio Emillia’s approach of learning which was born after World War II, introduced by Loris Malaguzzi in Italy. The teaching philosophy is aimed to necessitate a new and quick way of making children learn from their own experiences and observations rather than forced and rigid techniques.The exhibition will comprise of a series of pictures and photographs that illustrate the Italian experience of a different educational concept that makes the early educational years of children more intriguing and exploratory than that age old book driven knowledge providing system. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix’This exhibition draws attention to the importance of education and schools as places for discussion and mutual exchange. The aim is to reconfirm the values at the heart of the Reggio Emilia educational philosophy and to recount the changes, innovations and developments that have taken place. The exhibition speaks to all those involved in schooling, and to all members of the general public who believe that safeguarding educational processes and their evolution is of fundamental importance for society,’ said  Kiran Mehta, principal, Salwan Public School. Loris Malaguzzi believed that creativity or rather the wonder of learning serves a strong point in our work and our children should be granted with space wherein they are allowed to be themselves, explore, see, feel and grasp on their own. The exhibition is split into six different branches and each of these involves a great sense of newness in its approach. The impact of a space, sound or environmental artwork on learning, inspiring the child’s own creativity, the significance of alphabetical codes and cognitive skills, the role of light in forming perceptions at an early stage are some of the segments that are paid attention to.When: 23 November onwardsWhere: IGNCAlast_img read more